Raw water lily (nymphaea lotus) leaves powder as an effective adsorbent for the adsorption of malachite green dye from aqueous solution

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Physical Sciences, Bayero University, Knao, Nigeria

2 Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Science and Technology, Abubakar Tatari Ali Polytechnic, PMB 0094, Bauchi-Nigeria


In this present study, raw water lily leaves (RWL) powder was prepared and used as low cost, efficient and environmental friendly adsorbent for the removal of malachite green (MG) from aqueous solution. The adsorbent’s surface functional group, net neutral charge and morphology were analysed by FT-IR, Point of Zero charge and Scanning Electron (SEM) spectroscopic techniques which confirmed the effective adsorption of MG dyes onto the RWL adsorbent surface. Batch adsorption technique was employed under various optimized conditions including contact time, adsorbent dosage, adsorbate concentration, pH and temperature respectively with an adsorption capacity of 216.66mg/g and percentage adsorption of 99.5. The physical properties: moisture content (13.49%), ash content (9.81%), organic matter (90.19%), bulk density (0.263g/cm3), pore volume (1.66cm3), pH (5.74) of the adsorbent were obtained using standard methods. The kinetic data were best fitted by pseudo-second order in all the models tested under different operating temperatures. The adsorption isotherms were estimated, established and found to fit into Freundlich isotherm as compared to other models tested. Thermodynamics of the adsorption was found to be spontaneous and feasible with values of Gibb’s free energy (∆G) ranging between -9.481 to -9.880kJ/mol, exothermic with enthalpy (∆H) of -11.75kJ/mol and a decrease in randomness of the adsorption process during the transfer of molecules between the adsorbent and adsorbates with entropy (∆S) of -6.33kJ/mol. This study confirmed that RWL could be employed as a low cost and environmental friendly adsorbent for the removal of toxic dyes such as Malachite Green from aqueous solution


Main Subjects

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Volume 5, Issue 4 - Serial Number 4
August 2022
Pages 250-260
  • Receive Date: 16 April 2022
  • Revise Date: 08 July 2022
  • Accept Date: 09 July 2022
  • First Publish Date: 09 July 2022