A review of biochemical structures of Urtica dioica metabolites and their pharmaceutical effects

Document Type : Review Article


1 Department of Medical Analysis, Tishk International University - Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

2 Department of Medical Analysis, Tishk International University - Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Department of Basic Sciences, Microbiology Unit, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University - Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.


Phytochemicals are chemical compounds produced by plants during the natural metabolic processes to resisting them fungi, bacteria and plant virus infections, and also consumption by insects and other animals. Phytochemicals is generally used to describe plant compounds that are under research and are often referred to as secondary metabolites. Some phytochemicals have been used as poisons and some others as traditional medicine and Nutrition. The aim of present study was to update a comprehensive review published on Urtica dioica which includes phytochemical and pharmacological synthesis. Urtica dioica or stinging nettle which is Urticaceae family herbaceous perennial, usually grows in temperate regions such as Europe, some places of Asia and western North Africa, New Zealand and North America. Its stem and leaves covered with hairs called trichomes which act like hypodermic needles and inject histamine and some other chemicals. Burning sensation during contact and contact urticaria (contact dermatitis) is visible because of it. A lot of bioactive phytochemical compounds have been identified in the methanolic extract of it.


Main Subjects

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