Ajuga iva L.: An overview of phytochemical profile and biological functionalities

Document Type : Review Article


Laboratory of Functional Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Fes, Morocco



Ajuga iva is a naturally growing plant in different locations around the world with multiple ethnopharmacological uses. The development of experimental research methods permits exploration and confirmation of the biological properties of Ajuga iva. These biological activities are highly affected by several factors, including the geographical origin of the plant, extraction method, and experimental model. This review collects traditional and modern knowledge regarding the phytochemical composition, pharmacological activities, and toxicological investigations of Ajuga iva. Different extracts prepared using several solvents and extraction methods have been proven to have considerable antioxidant, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities in vitro and in vivo. Several bioactive compounds have been identified in Ajuga iva collected from different locations worldwide, including phenolic acids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, and fatty acids, which show various pharmacological activities. The recorded toxicity studies revealed that Ajuga iva is safe and has many folk medicine uses for relieving symptoms of several diseases.


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