Nanocellulose surface modification reactions and their influence on the adsorption of heavy metal ions from water -A Review

Document Type : Review Article


1 University of Botswana Private Bag UB 00704 Chemistry department

2 Botho University Private Bag, P O Box 501564, Gaborone, Botswana


This paper reports a detailed review of the chemistry and associated mechanisms of cellulose modification by chemical methods. Several chemical modification reactions are carried out on the surface of nanocellulose material to enhance their adsorption capacities for specific contaminants and take advantage of their biodegradability. Chemical modification of nanocellulose is an effective method of producing nanocellulose adsorbents with low hornification, improved dispersion in water, reduced swelling, and improved affinity for heavy metal ions. Standard modification processes reviewed include acetylation, esterification, and oxidation of the surface hydroxyl group. Modified nanocellulose materials are effective adsorbents of heavy metal ions and organic dyes with over 80 mg/g adsorption capacities.


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