Impact of ultrasound frequency on the corrosion resistance of electroless nickel-phosphorus-nanodiamond plating

Document Type : Research Article


Electrochemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran


The nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) and nickel-phosphorus-nanodiamond (Ni-P-ND) coatings were deposited on mild steel via electroless plating without ultrasound and under ultrasonic agitation with different frequencies of 25, 50, 75, 100, and 150 kHz. The as-prepared coatings were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The corrosion performance of the fabricated layers was evaluated in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization. Results of the corrosion tests demonstrated that deposition under ultrasonic power provided coatings with higher stability in the corrosive environment. The corrosion rate decreased with increasing ultrasound frequency from 25 to 75 kHz but increased with further increase in frequency. This introduced 75 kHz as the optimum ultrasound frequency for electroless plating of Ni-P. It was also observed that the corrosion resistance of the proposed coating was improved through the incorporation of 40 ppm nanodiamond into the Ni-P matrix.


Main Subjects

  1. S. Chen, T. Liang, N. Wen, F.-H. Liu, C.-C. Tsao, C.-Y. Hsu, Electro-less plating nickel-phosphorus of low carbon steel using various pretreatments and an external magnetic field, J. Saudi Chem. Soc. 24 (2020) 704–714.
  2. F.-B. Wu, J.-G. Duh, Mechanical properties of sputtered nickel–phosphorus-based hard coatings under thermal annealing, Surf. Coatings Technol. 188 (2004) 500–505.
  3. J.  Mashhadizadeh, A.  Bozorgian, A.  Azimi, Investigation of the kinetics of formation of Clatrit-like dual hydrates TBAC in the presence of CTAB, Eurasian Chemical Communication, 2 (2020), 536-547.
  4. I.A. Shozib, A. Ahmad, M.S.A. Rahaman, A. majdi Abdul-Rani, M.A. Alam, M. Beheshti, I. Taufiqurrahman, Modelling and optimization of microhardness of electroless Ni–P–TiO2 composite coating based on machine learning approaches and RSM, J. Mater. Res. Technol. 12 (2021) 1010–1025.
  5. B. Ghanavati, A. Bozorgian, Removal of Copper II from Industrial Effluent with Beta Zeolite Nanocrystals, Progress in Chemical and Biochemical Research, 5 (2022) 53-67.
  6. G. Zhao, R. Wang, S. Liu, T. Wang, D. Wu, Y. Zhang, J. Chen, Y. Zou, Microstructure analysis of element W in improving the Ni–P deposit thermal stability, J. Mater. Res. Technol. 9 (2020) 5474–5486.
  7. S. Karmalkar, R. Marjorie, V.G. Sumithra, Adhesion of electroless nickel plating on polished silicon, J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 16 (2002) 1501–1507.
  8. C.-S. Chang, K.-H. Hou, M.-D. Ger, C.-K. Chung, J.-F. Lin, Effects of annealing temperature on microstructure, surface roughness, mechanical and tribological properties of Ni–P and Ni–P/SiC films, Surf. Coatings Technol. 288 (2016) 135–143.
  9. I.K. Hong, H. Kim, S.B. Lee, Optimization of barrel plating process for electroless Ni–P plating, J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 20 (2014) 3767–3774.
  10. M. Bagheri Sadr, A. Bozorgian, An Overview of Gas Overflow in Gaseous Hydrates, Journal of Chemical Reviews, 3 (2021), 66-82..
  11. B. Ghanavati, A. Bozorgian, J. Ghanavati, Removal of Copper (II) Ions from the Effluent by Carbon Nanotubes Modified with Tetrahydrofuran, Chemical Review and Letters, 5 (2022) 68-75.
  12. D.R. Dhakal, Y.K. Kshetri, G. Gyawali, T.-H. Kim, J.-H. Choi, S.W. Lee, Understanding the effect of Si3N4 nanoparticles on wear resistance behavior of electroless Nickel-Phosphorus coating through structural investigation, Appl. Surf. Sci. 541 (2021) 148403.
  13. J. Chen, Q. Meng, S. Zhang, K. Chong, W. Zhao, Y. Zou, Insights into corrosion resistance enhancement of nickel–phosphorus metallic glass in acid environment by the incorporation of copper, Vacuum. 195 (2022) 110705.
  14. J.T.W. Jappes, N.C. Brintha, M.A. Khan, N.J. Christo, Effect of modified method of coating on particle incorporation and wear resistance of nickel–phosphorus–diamond composite coatings, Mater. Today Proc. 45 (2021) 1509–1513.
  15. A. Ahmadpour, A. Bozorgian, A. Eslamimanesh, AH. Mohammadi, Photocatalytic treatment of spontaneous petrochemical effluents by TiO2 CTAB synthetic nanoparticles, Desalination and Water Treatment, 249 (2022) 297-308.
  16. A. Haghighi Asl, A. Ahmadpour, N. Fallah., Synthesis of Nano N-TiO2 for modeling of petrochemical industries spent caustic wastewater photocatalitic treatment in visible light using DOE method, Applied Chemistry 12 (2017) 253-286.
  17. R. Hu, Y. Su, H. Liu, J. Cheng, X. Yang, Z. Shao, The effect of adding corrosion inhibitors into an electroless nickel plating bath for magnesium alloys, J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 25 (2016) 4530–4536.
  18. M. Islam, M.R. Azhar, Y. Khalid, R. Khan, H.S. Abdo, M.A. Dar, O.R. Oloyede, T.D. Burleigh, Electroless Ni-P/SiC nanocomposite coatings with small amounts of SiC nanoparticles for superior corrosion resistance and hardness, J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 24 (2015) 4835–4843.
  19. C. Zhao, Y. Yao, Preparation and mechanical properties of electroless nickel-phosphorus-tungsten carbide nanocomposite coatings, J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 23 (2014) 193–197.
  20. A. Bozorgian, Investigation of the effect of Zinc Oxide Nano-particles and Cationic Surfactants on Carbon Dioxide Storage capacity, Advanced Journal of Chemistry, Section B: Natural Products and Medical Chemistry, 3 (2021), 54-61.
  21. A.P. Meshram, M.K.P. Kumar, C. Srivastava, Enhancement in the corrosion resistance behaviour of amorphous NiP coatings by incorporation of graphene, Diam. Relat. Mater. 105 (2020) 107795.
  22. Z. Rajabalizadeh, D. Seifzadeh, A. Khodayari, S. Sohrabnezhad, Corrosion protection and mechanical properties of the electroless Ni-P-MOF nanocomposite coating on AM60B magnesium alloy, J. Magnes. Alloy. (2021).
  23. M.H. Sliem, K. Shahzad, V.N. Sivaprasad, R.A. Shakoor, A.M. Abdullah, O. Fayyaz, R. Kahraman, M.A. Umer, Enhanced mechanical and corrosion protection properties of pulse electrodeposited NiP-ZrO2 nanocomposite coatings, Surf. Coatings Technol. 403 (2020) 126340.
  24. A. Bozorgian, B. Raei, Thermodynamic Modeling and Phase Prediction for Binary System Dinitrogen Monoxide and Propane, Journal of Chemistry Letters, 1 (2021), 143-148.
  25. M. Sheng, C. Lv, L. Hong, M. Shao, K. Wan, F. Lv, The influence of ultrasonic frequency on the properties of Ni-Co coatings prepared by ultrasound-assisted electrodeposition, Acta Metall. Sin. (English Lett. 26 (2013) 735–741.
  26. L. Bonin, N. Bains, V. Vitry, A.J. Cobley, Electroless deposition of nickel-boron coatings using low frequency ultrasonic agitation: Effect of ultrasonic frequency on the coatings, Ultrasonics. 77 (2017) 61–68.
  27. I.R. Mafi, C. Dehghanian, Studying the effects of the addition of TiN nanoparticles to Ni–P electroless coatings, Appl. Surf. Sci. 258 (2011) 1876–1880.
  28. H. Luo, M. Leitch, Y. Behnamian, Y. Ma, H. Zeng, J.-L. Luo, Development of electroless Ni–P/nano-WC composite coatings and investigation on its properties, Surf. Coatings Technol. 277 (2015) 99–106.