An Assessment to Determine the Level of Some Selected Heavy Metals in Rice (Oryza Sativa) Consumed Within Funtua Metropolis

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Chemistry, UNIMAID Maiduguri

2 Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria

3 Department of Computer Sciences, Baze University Abuja

4 Department of Chemistry ABU Zaria

5 Department of Public Health, University of Maiduguri, Borno, Nigeria


The concentrations of heavy metals namely; chromium, cadmium, lead and nickel (Cr, Cd, Pb and Ni) were determined from twelve samples of rice(ORYZA SATIVA) , the samples comprises of six foreign samples and six local samples collected from different markets within Funtua Local Government Area in 2019. The samples were digested in aqua region and the level of heavy metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer AA500FS Model. Concentrations of the heavy metals in the rice samples were in the order Cr > Pb > Ni > Cd. The highest concentration of cadmium was detected in LR1(0.620mg/kg) and LR5(0.626mg/kg) while the lowest was detected in FR5(0.058mg/kg). The lowest concentration of nickel was detected in in FR6(0.060mg/kg) and LR2(0.090mg/kg) while the highest was detected in LR3(0.910mg/kg) and LR4(0.750mg/kg). The highest concentration of lead was detected in FR6(0.650mg/kg) and LR1(0.580mg/kg) while the lowest was detected in LR2(0.199mg/kg) and LR5(0.212mg/kg). The highest concentration of chromium was detected in LR1(0.840mg/kg), LR4(0.840mg/kg) and FR5(0.760mg/kg) while the lowest was detected in LR6(0.050mg/kg) and FR2(0.080mg/kg). The analysis shows that chromium, nickel, and lead concentrations that accumulated almost all the rice samples exceeded the maximum permissible limits prescribed by the World Health Organization guideline as well as the Food And Agricultural Organization standard. Cadmium concentrations were found in almost all the samples to conform with the standards. The higher levels of heavy metals accumulated by the samples may be attributed to the increase in agricultural activities such as the application of phosphate fertilizer, sewage sludge disposal and other anthropogenic activities which deserve further investigations.


Main Subjects

  1. Alizadeh, M., S. Pirsa, and N. Faraji, Determination of lemon juice adulteration by analysis of gas chromatography profile of volatile organic compounds extracted with nano-sized polyester-polyaniline fiber. Food analytical methods, 2017. 10(6): p. 2092-2101.
  2. Arthur, D.E., et al., Miscibility study of poly acrylamide (PAM) and Acacia Senegal (gum arabic) blends. Chemical Review and Letters, 2019. 2(4): p. 157-164.
  3. Aroh Oyibo, A., D.E. Arthur, and D.A. Danzarami, The use of strawberry and arabic gum blend as an inhibitor for the corrosion of aluminium in an acidic medium. Chemical Review and Letters, 2019. 2(2): p. 69-75.
  4. Arthur, D.E., et al., Rheological modeling of interaction existing between synergistic combination of gum Arabic and Khaya senegalensis. International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, 2015: p. 160-173.
  5. Pirsa, S., F. Asadzadeh, and I.K. Sani, Synthesis of magnetic gluten/pectin/Fe 3 O 4 Nano-hydrogel and its use to reduce environmental pollutants from lake Urmia sediments. Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials, 2020. 30(8): p. 3188-3198.
  6. Pirsa, S., M. Alizadeh, and N. Ghahremannejad, Application of nano-sized poly N-phenyl pyrrole coated polyester fiber to headspace microextraction of some volatile organic compounds and analysis by gas chromatography. Current Analytical Chemistry, 2016. 12(5): p. 457-464.
  7. Saidfar, A., M. Alizadeh, and S. Pirsa, Application of Nano-sized Poly (N-methyl pyrrole-pyrrole) Fiber to the Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction of Volatile Organic Compounds from Yogurt. Journal of Chemistry Letters, 2020. 1(1): p. 39-46.
  8. Abdallah, S., A. Uzairu, and J. Kagbu, Assessment of heavy metals bioaccumulation by Eleusine indica from refuse dumpsites in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, 2012. 4(9): p. 153-160.
  9. Abdel-Shafy, H.I., Chemical treatment for removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater. Egypt. J. Chemistry, 2015. 58(1): p. 1-12.
  10. Mostafavi, S., V. Rezaverdinejad, and S. Pirsa, Design and fabrication of nanocomposite-based polyurethane filter for‏‏ improving municipal waste water quality and removing organic pollutants. Adsorption Science & Technology, 2019. 37(1-2): p. 95-112.
  11. Pirsa, S., Design of a portable gas chromatography with a conducting polymer nanocomposite detector device and a method to analyze a gas mixture. Journal of separation science, 2017. 40(8): p. 1724-1730.
  12. Barón-Jaimez, J., M. Joya, and J. Barba-Ortega. Anodic stripping voltammetry–ASV for determination of heavy metals. in Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2013. IOP Publishing.
  13. Dzomba, P., T. Chayamiti, and E. Togarepi, Heavy metal content of selected raw medicinal plant materials: implication for patient health. 2012.
  14. Rai, V., et al., Heavy metal accumulation in some herbal drugs. Pharmaceutical biology, 2001. 39(5): p. 384-387.
  15. Khan, S., et al., Health risks of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing, China. Environmental pollution, 2008. 152(3): p. 686-692.
  16. Wakawa, R., et al., Impact assessment of effluent discharge on physico-chemical parameters and some heavy metal concentrations in surface water of River Challawa Kano, Nigeria. African journal of pure and applied chemistry, 2008. 2(10): p. 100-106.
  17. Arthur, D.E., et al., A review on the assessment of polymeric materials used as corrosion inhibitor of metals and alloys. International Journal of Industrial Chemistry, 2013. 4(1): p. 1-9.
  18. Pirsa, S., R. Dalili, and I. Yazdani, Study Effects Of Quince Seed Mucilage And Guar Gum On The Sensory Characteristics And The Volatile Compound Profile Of Doogh By Gas Chromatography/Nano-Sized Polypyrrole Fiber. Latin American Applied Research, 2018. 48: p. 31-36.
  19. Arthur, D.E., Computational and experimental study on corrosion inhibition potential of the synergistic 1: 1 combination of Arabic and cashew gums on mild steel. Petroleum Research, 2020. 5(2): p. 170-180.
  20. Arthur, D.E. and A.A. Oyibo, Application of Taguchi design in the removal of heavy metals from Simulated metal solutions using groundnut shell and tea bag as a natural absorbent. Bulletin of the National Research Centre, 2021. 45(1): p. 1-11.

21. Arthur, D.E., et al., Quantitative structure-activity and toxicity relationship study of CCRF-CEM and RPMI 8402 cell line apoptosis with some anticancer compounds. Chemical Data Collections, 2017. 7: p. 8-50.