Preparation of biodegradable composite starch/tragacanth gum/Nanoclay film and study of its physicochemical and mechanical properties

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

2 Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Urmia, Urmia, Iran.


In this study, biodegradable composite starch/tragacanth gum/Nanoclay (St/TG/Clay) film was prepared. The basis of the film was wheat starch, which tragacanth gum was added at three levels (0.2 and 0.5% by w/w) and clay nanoparticles at three levels (0.1, 0.5 and 3% by w/w). Physicochemical properties of the film, including thickness, water solubility, moisture content, and vapor vapor permeability (WVP), were investigated. The mechanical properties of the films, including the tensile strength and elongation of the films, and the color characteristics of the films were examined. The results showed that adding tragacanth to the starch film increased the thickness, moisture content and permeability of the water vapor and reduced its solubility. The addition of tragacanth to the starch film increased tensile strength and elongation. The addition of tragacanth reduced the transparency of the films. Adding clay nanoparticles to starch film increased the water content, reduced water vapor permeability, and reduced solubility, but adding nanoparticles increased the thickness. Nanoclay increased the tensile strength of the films and reduced the elongation. The lightness of the films decreased with the addition of nano-clay, and the factor b, which indicated the yellowness of the film, increased. In general, it can be concluded that the addition of tragacanth and Nanoclay improves the physical and mechanical properties of starch film.


[1] V. Siracusa, P. Rocculi, S. Romani, M. Dalla Rosa, Biodegradable polymers for food packaging: a review, Trends. Food. Sci. Technol., 19 (2008) 634-643.
[2] M. Pirouzifard, R.A. Yorghanlu, S. Pirsa, Production of active film based on potato starch containing Zedo gum and essential oil of Salvia officinalis and study of physical, mechanical, and antioxidant properties, J. Thermoplast. Compos. Mater., (2019) p.0892705718815541.
[3] K. Leja, and G. Lewandowicz, Polymer Biodegradation and Biodegradable Polymers-a Review. Pol. J. Environ. Studi., 19(2) (2010).
[4] S. Pirsa, I. Karimi Sani, S. Khodayvandi, Design and fabrication of starch‐nano clay composite films loaded with methyl orange and bromocresol green for determination of spoilage in milk package, Polym. Adv. Technol., 29 (2018) 2750-2758.
[5] X.L. Wang, K.K. Yang, Y.Z. Wang, Properties of starch blends with biodegradable polymers, J. Macromol. Sci. C. Polym. Rev., 43 (2003) 385-409.
[6] C.A. Tischer, M. Iacomini, P.A. Gorin, Structure of the arabinogalactan from gum tragacanth (Astralagus gummifer), Carbohydr. Res., 337 (2002) 1647-1655.
[7] M. Ranjbar-Mohammadi, Production of cotton fabrics with durable antibacterial property by using gum tragacanth and silver, Int. J. Boil. Macromol., 109 (2018) 476-482.
[8] B. Singh, L. Varshney, S. Francis, Synthesis and characterization of tragacanth gum based hydrogels by radiation method for use in wound dressing application, Radiat. Phys. Chem., 135 (2017) 94-105.
[9] C.K. Lam, K.T. Lau, H.Y. Cheung, H.Y. Ling, Effect of ultrasound sonication in nanoclay clusters of nanoclay/epoxy composites, Mater. Lett., 59 (2005) 1369-1372.
[10] T. Widya, C.W. Macosko, Nanoclay‐modified rigid polyurethane foam, J. Macromol. Sci., B. Phys., 44 (2005) 897-908.
[11] L. Wang, K. Wang, L. Chen, Y. Zhang, C. He, Preparation, morphology and thermal/mechanical properties of epoxy/nanoclay composite, Compos. A Appl. Sci. Manuf., 37 (2006) 1890-1896.
[12] E. Farshchi, S. Pirsa, L. Roufegarinejad, M. Alizadeh, M. Rezazad, Photocatalytic/biodegradable film based on carboxymethyl cellulose, modified by gelatin and TiO2-Ag nanoparticles, Carbohydr. Polym., 216 (2019)189-196.
[13] S. Pirsa, I. Karimi Sani, M.K. Pirouzifard, A. Erfani, Smart film based on chitosan/Melissa officinalis essences/pomegranate peel extract to detect cream cheeses spoilage, Food. Addit. Contam. A., 37 (2020) 634-648.
[14] S. Asadi, S. Pirsa, Production of Biodegradable Film Based on Polylactic Acid, Modified with Lycopene Pigment and TiO2 and Studying Its Physicochemical Properties, J. Polym. Environ., 28 (2020) 433-444.
[15] B. Mohammadi, S. Pirsa, M. Alizadeh, Preparing chitosan–polyaniline nanocomposite film and examining its mechanical, electrical, and antimicrobial properties, Polym.
Polym. Compos., 27 (2019) 507-517.
[16] S. Chavoshizadeh, S. Pirsa, F. Mohtarami, Conducting/smart color film based on whea
[17] gluten/chlorophyll/polypyrrole nanocomposite, Food. Packag. Shelf. Life., 24 (2020)100501.
[18] B. Saberi, R. Thakur, Q.V. Vuong, S. Chockchaisawasdee, J.B. Golding, C.J. Scarlett, C.E. Stathopoulos, Optimization of physical and optical properties of biodegradable edible films based on pea starch and guar gum. Ind. Crops. Prod., 86 (2016) 342-352.
[19] S. Santacruz, C. Rivadeneira, M. Castro, Edible films based on starch and chitosan. Effect of starch source and concentration, plasticizer, surfactant's hydrophobic tail and mechanical treatment, Food. Hydrocoll., 49 (2015) 89-94.
[20] V.C.R. Schmidt, L.M. Porto, J.B. Laurindo, F.C. Menegalli, Water vapor barrier and mechanical properties of starch films containing stearic acid, Ind. Crops. Prod., 41(2013) 227-234.
[21] Y. Wu, F. Geng, P.R. Chang, J. Yu, X. Ma, Effect of agar on the microstructure and performance of potato starch film, Carbohydr. Polym., 76 (2009) 299-304.
[22] T.L. Lao, L.T. Pengson, J. Placido, L.J. Diaz, Synthesis of Montmorillonite Nanoclay Reinforced Chitin-cellulose Nanocomposite Film. IOP Conference Series: Mater. Sci. Eng., 540 (2019) 012010.
[23] M. Kim, S.J. Lee, Characteristics of crosslinked potato starch and starch-filled linear low-density polyethylene films, Carbohydr. Polym., 50 (2002) 331-337.