Heavy Metals Accumulation in Different Cultivated Fish Tissues through Commercial Fish Feeds and Health Risk Estimation in Consumers in Bangladesh

Document Type : Research Article

Authors

1 Institute of Leather Engineering and Technology, 45-50 Hazaribagh, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1209, Bangladesh

2 Department of Analytical Chemistry & Environmental Science, Training Institute for Chemical Industries, Polash, Narsingdi-1611, Bangladesh

Abstract

< p>Cultivated fishes are major protein and microelement sources for all sorts of people in Bangladesh due to its availability and affordability. Since heavy metals are persistent in the aquatic environment, these metals can accumulate in the food chain. Cultivated fishes containing heavy metals can cause a carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk to human as it biologically accumulates heavy metals from commercial feeds. This study was designed to access the content of heavy metals in the flesh of some cultivated fish species through consuming commercial fish feeds available in Bangladesh and potential health risk calculation for consumers due to intake daily. The concentration (mg/kg, dry weight) range of heavy metals like; Pb (4.56- 7.08), Cd (0.23- 1.28), Cr (4.00-7.08), Cu (11.23- 20.62), As (0.08- 0.34), Hg (0.05- 0.34) in selected commercial fish feeds and Pb (4.35-8.03), Cd (0.87- 1.35), Cr (4.71-8.98), Cu (14.00- 31.80), As (0.17- 0.28), Hg (0.08- 0.41) in fishes were accessed by inductive coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The recorded concentration value for selected metals in fish tissues and feeds were also compared with the safe limit proposed by World health organization (WHO, 1995), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO, 1983), European Union (EU, 2001). This study also estimated the carcinogenic and non- carcinogenic risk due to daily consumption of these cultivated fishes for a certain age.

Graphical Abstract

Heavy Metals Accumulation in Different Cultivated Fish Tissues through Commercial Fish Feeds and Health Risk Estimation in Consumers in Bangladesh

Keywords


[1] B. Cui, Q. Zhang, K. Zhang, X. Liu, H. Zhang, Analyzing trophic transfer of heavy metals for food webs in the newly-formed wetlands of the Yellow River Delta, China. Environ Pollut., 159 (2011) 1297-1306
[2] T. A. Omolara, F. A. Isaac, and M. A. Ibukun, Comparative Assessment and Source Identification of Heavy Metals in Selected Fishpond Water, Sediment and Fish Tissues/Organs in Osun State, Nigeria. Journal of Health and Pollution, 4 (2014) 42-53
[3] A. M. Marcelo, C. R. Luana, F. M. Raquel, M. Luciana, C. B. Simone, Assessment of trace elements in fishes of Japanese foods marketed in São Paulo (Brazil). Food Control, 22 (2011) 22(5) 778-785
[4] F. Yilmaz, N. Özdemir, A. Demirak, and A. L. Tuna, Heavy metal levels in two fish species Leuciscus cephalus and Lepomis gibbosus. Food Chemistry, 100 (2007) 830–835.
[5] C. G. Yuan, J. B. Shi, B. He, J. F. Liu, N. L.Liang, G. B Jiang, Speciation of heavy metals in marine sediments from the East China Sea by ICP-MS with sequential extraction. Environ Int., 30 (2004) 769-83.
[6] L. B. Mohammad, A. S. Hasina, K. R. Nusratand N. S. Ummay, Potential Human Health Risks of Tannery Waste-contaminated Poultry Feed. Journal of Health and Pollution, 5 (2015) 68-77.
[7] G. K. Kundu, M. Alauddin, M. S. Akter, M. S. Khan, M. M. Islam, G. Monda, D. Islam, L. C. Mohanta and A. Huque, Metal contamination of commercial fish feed and quality aspects of farmed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Bangladesh. Bioresearch Communications, 3 (2017) 465-474.
[8] M. I. Hossain, B. Saha, M. Begum, N. J. Punom, M. K. Begum and M. S. Rahman, Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in tilapia fed with commercial fish feeds. Bangladesh Journal of Scientific Research, 29 (20160) 89-99.
[9] FAO. Fisheries and Aquaculture topics. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture (SOFIA). Topics Fact Sheets. Text by Jean- Francois Pulvenis. In: FAO Fisheries Division, Rome. 2008-2020; Updated 1 July 2020.
[10] B. A. Anhwange, K. Asemave, B. C. Kimand, D. T. Nyiaataghe, Heavy metals contents of some synthetic fish feeds found within Makurdi Metropolis. International Journal of Food Nutrition and Safety, 2 (2012) 55-61.
[11] I. Sen, A. Shandil, V. Shrivastava, Study for determination of heavy metals in fish species of the river Yamuna (Delhi) by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Advances in Applied Science Research, 2 (2011) 161-166.
[12] P. B. Tchounwou, B. A. Wilson, A. A. Abdelghani, A. B. Ishaque, A. K. Patlolla, Differential cytotoxicity and gene expression in human liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells exposed to arsenic trioxide and monosodium acid methanearsonate (MSMA). International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 3 (2002) 1117-1132.
[13] S. Thomas, A. J. Mohaideen, Analysis of heavy metals in fish, water and sediment from Bay of Bengal. International Journal of Engineering Science Invention, 3 (2014) 42-46.
[14] J. O. Duruibe, M. O. C. Gwuegbu, J. N. Egwurugwu, Heavy metal pollution and human biotoxic effects. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 2 (2007) 112-118.
[15] M. J. McLaughlin, D. R. Parker, J. M. Clarke, Metals and micronutrients - food safety issues. Field Crop Res., 60 (1999) 143-63.
[16] A. A. K. Abou-Arab, Heavy metal contents in Egyptian meat and the role of detergent washing on their levels. Food Chem Toxicol, 39 (2001) 593-9
[17] O. D. Uluozlu, M. Tuzen, D. Mendil, M. Soylak, Assessment of trace element contents of chicken products from Turkey. J Hazard Mater, 30 (2009) 982-7
[18] B. M. Basaran, B. Ulas, O. B. Ehzat, Toxicological profile for chromium. Atlata, GA: US Department of Health and Human Service, 2008.
[19] R. N. Ratnaike, Acute and chronic arsenic toxicity. Postgrad Med J., 79 (2003) 391–396.
[20] A. A. Taylor, J. S. Tsuji, M. R. Garry, Critical Review of Exposure and Effects: Implications for Setting Regulatory Health Criteria for Ingested Copper. Environmental Management, 65 (2020) 131–159.
[21] T. W. Clarkson, J. J. Strain, Nutritional factors may modify the toxic action of methyl mercury in fish-eating populations. J Nutr., 133 (2003) 133 1539–43.
[22] W. Sabbir, M. Z. Rahman, T. Halder, M. N. Khan, S. Ray, Assessment of heavy metal contamination in fish feed available in three districts of South-Western region of Bangladesh. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 6 (2018) 100-104.
[23] K. Fatema, M. N. Sakib, M. A. Zahid, N. Sultana, M. R. Rakibul, Growth performances and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in anabas testudineus (bloch, 1792) cultured using different market feeds. Bangladesh J. Zool, 47 (2019); 77-88.
[24] M. A. Mannan, M. S. Hossain, M. A. A. Sarker, M. M. Hossain, L. Chandra, Bioaccumulation of Toxic Heavy Metals in Fish after Feeding with Synthetic Feed: A Potential Health Risk in Bangladesh. J Nutr Food Sci., 8 (2018) 1-6.
[25] S. E. Allen, H. E. Grimshaw and A. P. Rowland, Chemical Analysis. In: Moore PD, Chapman SB (eds) Methods in Plant ecology. Blackwell Scientific Publication, Oxford, (1986) 285-344
[26] J. A. Arnot, A. P. C. Gobas, A review of bioconcentration factor (BCF) and bioaccumulation factor (BAF) assessments for organic chemicals in aquatic organisms. Environmental Reviews, 14 (2006) 14(4) 257–297.
[27] C. Chen, Y. Qian, Q. Chen, C. Li, Assessment of daily intake of toxic elements due to consumption of vegetables, fruits, meat, and seafood by inhabitants of Xiamen, China. J. Food Sci., 76 (2011) 181–188.
[28] United States Environmental Protection Agency. Regional screening levels (RSLs) - generic tables. 2018 Washington, D.C. Available from: http://www.epa.gov/risk/regional-sc reening-levels-rsls-generic-tables
[29] The statistical yearbook of Bangladesh - 2011. 31st ed. Dhaka, Bangladesh: Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics; 2012.
[30] H. R. Gebeyehu, L. D. Bayissa, Levels of heavy metals in soil and vegetables and associated health risks in Mojo area, Ethiopia, PLoS ONE, 15 (2020) 1-22
[31] WHO. World Health Organization. GEMS/Food-EURO second workshop on reliable evaluation of low-level contamination of food. Kulmbach, Federal Republic of Germany, 26 - 27 May 1995. Availableat:http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/chem/en/lowlevel_may1995.f
[32] Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Compilation of legal limits for hazardous substances in fish and fishery products. Fishery Circular No: 764. 1983 Oct, Rome: 1-108. Available from: http://www .fao.org/3/q5114e/q5114e.pdf
[33] European Union (EU), Commission Regulation as Regards Heavy Metals, Directive, 2001/22/EC, No: 466, 2001 Mar: 1-25.
[34] A. G. Asuero, A. Sayago, Gonzalez, The correlation coefficient: An overview. Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry, 36 (2007) 41-59
[35] M. Munshi, K. N. Tumu, M. N. Hasan, M. Z. Amin, Biochemical effects of commercial feedstuffs on the fry of climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) and its impact on Swiss albino mice as an animal model. Toxicol Rep., 5 (2018) 521-530
[36] M. Mohammad, M. L. Ali, R. Proshad, S. Islam, S. Rahman, T. R. Tusher, T. Kormoker and A. A. Mamun, Heavy metal concentrations in commercially valuable fishes with health hazard inference from Karnaphuli River, Bangladesh. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, (2019) 1-18
[37] M. S. Rahman, A. H. Molla, N. Saha, A, Rahman, Study on heavy metals levels and its risk assessment in some edible fishes from Bangshi River, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Food Chem., 134 (2012) 1847–1854.
[38] S. E. Abalaka, S. I. Enem, I. S. Idoko, N. A. Sani, O. Z. Tenuche, S. A. Ejeh, and W. K. Sambo, Heavy Metals Bioaccumulation and Health Risks with Associated Histopathological Changes in Clarias gariepinus from the Kado Fish Market, Abuja, Nigeria. Journal of Health and Pollution, 10 (2020) 1-12.
[39] D. Qin, H. Jiang, S. Bai, S. Tang, Z. Mou, Determination of 28 trace elements in three farmed cyprinid fish species from Northeast China. Food Control, 50 (2015) 1-8
[40] Y. A. Koleleni, O. O. Haji, Determination of concentration of heavy metals in fish from seaport of Zanzibar by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). Tanz. J. Sci., 40 (2014) 70-79
[41] M. H. G. Berntssen, K. Hylland, K. Julshamn, A. K. Lundeby, R. Waagbo, Maximum limits of organic and inorganic mercury in fish feed. Aquaculture Nutrition, 10 (2004) 83–97