Document Type: Review Article
Department of Chemistry, Qaemshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr, Iran
Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran
Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran
R&D Department, Quality Control Laboratories, Tofigh Daru Research and Engineering Company, Tehran, Iran
Unlike other related compounds, vitamin D has multi-function operations against 2019-nCoV virus via intervention in several parts of its lifecycle. In one hand, this compound induces antimicrobial peptides like cathelicidins and proteins like defensins that lead to lower viral replication rates and also reduces the concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines (it causes inflammation that results in multi-organ failure). In the other hand, a vitamin D agonist, calcitriol, modulates the expression of members of the renin‑angiotensin system, including angiotensin converting enzymes like ACE2 (the cell receptor for 2019-nCoV viral spike protein). Thus, vitamin D may reduce the spike rate of the virus to the lung cells, resulting in inhibition of the virus in entry stage. About vitamin B series, there is a report that claims vitamin B12 may inhibit RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase activity of nsp12 from the 2019-nCoV virus.
Also, vitamins C, and E (anti-oxidants with anti-inflammatory effects) could be effective in inhibiting the damages of the organs caused by the acute immune response (inhibiting the release of high concentrations of free radicals) during COVID-19 as well as boosting the human immune system. It must be mentioned that, in spite of the presented supporting references, this paper is prepared for researcher, not for all people.